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Pogroms & Razzias

The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup in Paris by the French Police on July 16-17, 1942 resulted in 13,152 Jews being sent to Auschwitz for their extermination

[Picture above is of buses and police cars used to transport Jews at the Velodrome d'Hiver during the raid, parked outside the stadium]

The greatest mass-arrest of Jews on French soil was known as the Vél’ d’hiv’ Round-up and code named Opération Vent printanier ("Operation Spring Breeze). It was a joint operation between the Germans and French administrators and carried out by the French police in Paris on July 16-17, 1942.

The name for the event is derived from the nickname of the Vélodrome d'Hiver ("Winter Velodrome"), a bicycle velodrome and stadium where many of the victims were temporarily confined. According to records of the Préfecture de Police, 13,152 victims were arrested and held at the Vélodrome d'Hiver and the Drancy internment camp nearby, then shipped by railway transports to Auschwitz for extermination.

The “Western Wall Uprising” of 1929 and the Hebron and Safed Pogroms


The 1929 Palestine riots, also known as the Western Wall Uprising, refer to a series of riots and pogroms from August 23 - 29, 1929 when a dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem escalated into violence. During the week of riots, 133 Jews were killed by Arabs and 339 others were injured, while 110 Arabs were killed by British police and 232 were injured.

The Black Death in Europe from 1347 - 1350 AD resulted in the massacre of large numbers of Jews


A violent pestilence ravaged Europe from 1347 AD to 1350 AD. It was called The Black death (Black plague, Great Pestilence) and killed between 30 and 60% of Europe's population (about 25-50 million deaths). It was also an occasion for terrible pogroms that killed large numbers of Jews. Even where records exist, it is impossible to determine what percentage of Jews who died were victims of the plague, and how many died in persecutions and pogroms.

The Kishinev pogrom of 1903: Chaim Nachman Bialik’s poem, Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky, and the organization of Jewish self-defense

The Kishinev pogrom took place on April 6-7, 1903 in the capital of the Bessarabia province of the Russian Empire (now the capital of Moldova). What made the pogrom special was a Hebrew poem written by Chaim Nachman Bialik, considered the national poet of the Jewish people, in which he disparaged the Jewish passivity in the face of pogrom violence.

“Half Jew” Memoire Published

The Jewish Museum Westphalia, Dorsten is publishing the first part of the memoires of its former manager, Johanna Eichmann. Published under the title "You nix Jew, you blond, you German!" (Memories 1926-1952), the book describes her childhood and youth in Westphalia, mainly during the Nazi period.

Killing Jews for Profit and Profit in Medieval Bavaria

In the fall of 1337*, the inhabitants of the Bavarian Town of Deggendorf butchered the entire local Jewish community in order to avoid paying debts. Later, they justified their pogrom by an absurd tale of Host Desecration, creating an annual pilgrimage franchise which netted the town hefty revenues over the next centuries.

Remembering Kristallnacht: Gestapo Orders

 In 'law and order' loving Germany, the participation of the police forces in violent atacks on the nation's Jewish citizens signaled the complete deligitimization of the Jews that had taken place within just five years of the election of the Nazi party to power.

Two Girls' Memories of Kristallnacht, November 1938

The personal stories of two German girls, one Jewish and one non-Jewish, of how they experianced the November 1938 "Crystal Night" attack on the Jews of Germany and Austria.

Nuremberg Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor

The following are a photograph and a translation into English of the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, one of the infamous Nuremberg Laws of 1935 that were recently transferred to the U.S. National Archives.

Original Nuremberg Laws deposited at the U.S. National Archives

 The original copy of the Nuremberg Laws, pilfered by General George S. Patton and kept at the Huntington Library in California, have been transferred to the U.S. National Archives this week. The four pages of 1935 legislation, signed by Adolph Hitler, deprived Jewish citizens of most of their legal rights and forbade non-Jews from relationships with Jews.

Safed, 1834: the Forgotten Pogrom

In 1834, the Jewish population of Safed faced a violent pogrom that lasted a painful 33 days. Taking place years before the birth of political Zionism and the mass immigration of Jews to Ottoman Palestine, it was just one example of the violence that the Jews often faced under Muslim rule.

The Allahdad

A claim often made in the discussion of the Arab-Israeli conflict is that the Jews have always lived in Muslim countries happily and securely. The truth is that the Jews were constantly discriminated against and were often the victims of pogroms.

The Limerick Pogrom

The Limerick Pogrom was an anti-Jewish boycott and persecution that took place in 1904 in the Irish city of Limerick.

The Topolcany Pogrom

Prior to World War 2, about 135,000 Jews lived in Slovakia. As a part of Nazi Germany's expansion into Eastern Europe, Hitler set up a Slovak puppet state. The newly created Slovak Republic was led by the pro-Nazi Catholic priest by the name of Jozef Tiso.

The Shiraz Pogrom

The Shiraz Pogrom was a blood libel that took place in the Iranian city of Shiraz on October 30, 1910. The event took place even though no child had died.

The Tripoli Pogrom

Among the oldest Jewish community in the world, the Libyan Jewish community was established over 2,500 years ago. By World War II, the Jewish population in Libya swelled to some 35,000 people, roughly 3.6 percent of Libya’s total population. Though a minority, Libya’s Jews had long integrated into the society around them.

The Hep Hep Riots

The Hep Hep Riots of 1819 were violent pogroms in Europe directed at Jews. The riots, which were a backlash against a Jewish call for emancipation, took place in and around what is now Germany.

The Farhud

The Farhud was a pogrom against Iraqi Jews that took place in Baghdad on June 1st and 2nd of 1941.

Looking Back: the Kielce Pogrom

During the Second World War, the Jews of Poland suffered the largest casualties out of any other group of Jews. About 3 million Polish Jews perished in the Holocaust, with only about 300,000 surviving. After the fall of Nazi Germany, the Jewish refugees were instructed to go to their home counties.